Distilled spirits: Distilled spirits are alcoholic beverages, the water used to make the beer is filtered and the ingredients used to make it are crushed.  It changed history because it replaced beer and wine because it was more popular.

Trebuchet: The trebuchet is a big sling used to hurl stones or dead bodies with diseases into an inner wall of a city.  It could catapult stones  from miles away.  The trebuchet was so popular because of its repeated success in battle.

The Vertical Windmill:  Before the windmill, the water wheel was the dominant power source.  A waterwheel or windmill is a disk with tilted plates that harness power.  The vertical windmill is like a water wheel in the sky that harnesses air instead of water.   The  vertical windmill was invented in the 19th century and is still used today.  It increased capital because less man power was needed to generate power.

The Stern-Mounted Rudder:  The stern of a boat is the very back of a boat so the stern-mounted rudder is fitted on the back of a boat. The stern-mounted rudder is a wooden fin for large boats to be turned easily in water. It is more efficient than just an oar in the water.   It helped trade because the people could steer their boats easier across the sea leading to more trade and bartering.

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