Coke-Fired Blast Furnace:  Abraham Darby was born 1678, and learned an early coke-burning iron process from his great grand-uncle who had served in the English Civil War.  Then, Darby took his skills, his own interests, and his Uncles stories and made the coke-fired blast furnace.  Then he made a factory that efficiently smelted iron, but he had competition from brass makers.  In 1712 the Newcomen steam engine was invented.  Darby’s factory produced iron and people were buying lots of it in order to keep up with production demands for the Newcomen steam engine. Supplying the much needed iron for this product demand helped him stay in business and surpass the brass makers in a competition for money and market share.  His iron was used to build the world’s first steam-powered locomotive and the first iron arch bride.  The coke-fired blast furnace made the Industrial Revolution in 1800s possible.

Newcomen Steam Engine: Denis Papin built the first steam engine in 1690.  Thomas Savery built and patented the first steam pump in 1698.  In 1712 Thomas Newcomen build the first true steam engine.  The steam engine pumped water out of mines.  It totally changed mining in England and all accross Europe.  It also could operate tools, transportation and machinery.  In 1781 James Watt invented a refined engine.

Thomas Newcomen: Thomas Newcomen was born 1663, in Dartmouth, New Hampshire (I find that kind of cool because I lived in New Hampshire once).  He became an ironmonger (a person who sells hardware tools) but he wanted to be a pastor.  He helped Thomas Savery build his steam engine and Savery got a patent in 1707.  Newcomen then realized there were many flaws in that engine design and improved upon it.  600 of Newcomen’s new and improved steam engines were installed into trains, tools, and machinery by the end of the 1700s.  He used the money he earned to fund his calling of becoming a pastor.

Octant: It was built in 1730 by John Hadley and Thomas Godfrey.  It calculates the distance from the person using it and a celestial object (An object in the sky).  It works day and night.  It was smaller, lighter, and easier to use than other nautical tools, such as the astrolabe.  It took over the instrument market in 1780.  It was an invention which led to other technoligies that became crucial to the Industrial Revolotion.  It is my favorite invention because me and my Mom could have used it when we were  lost and almost stranded out in the Gulf of Mexico